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  • Haematology
  • Biochemistry


    The level of blood glucose depends on a dynamic equilibrium- intake of carbohydrate and endogenous glucose synthesis versus glucose storage, utilization & excretion. The most common impairment associated with abnormal carbohydrate metabolism is Diabetes Mellitus, with its accompanying high blood glucose levels. Other conditions which may also result in abnormal blood glucose levels include disorders of the pituitary gland, hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, traumatic injury, convulsive disorders, mental stress and phoeochromocytoma. Acute and chronic infections, eclampsia, hypertension and severe liver disease may also exhibit transitory elevations of blood glucose levels. On the other hand hyperinsulinism from either exogenous insulin overdose or from pancreatic lesions can result in low levels of blood glucose.

    Reference Range:
    Fasting: 60 – 110 mg/dL
    Post Prandial : Upto 150 mg/dL

    Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c):

    Elevated glycohaemoglobin levels are found in diabetic patients. Even though blood & urine glucose determinations are useful, they do not give all the necessary information to assess carbohydrate control to a doctor. However Glycohaemoglobin measurement offers more convenient and accurate measurement to the overall glucose metabolism of the patients. The unique ability of Glycohaemoglobin is to measure retrospectively the mean glucose concentration for the previous 6 – 8 weeks which makes it a useful indicator for assessing the long term control of diabetic patients.

    Reference Range:
    Normal: 4.5 – 5.90 %
    Good Control: 5.91 – 6.80 %
    Fair Control: 6.81 – 7.65 %
    Poor Control: More than 7.65 %


    Calcium has numerous functions in the body. It functions as an important factor in structure of bones and teeth, in neuromuscular activity and in clotting of blood. Increased serum calcium levels are observed in primary hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D and multiple myeloma. In addition some neoplastic diseases of bones may be associated with increased serum calcium levels. Decreased serum calcium levels are observed in hypoparathyroidism, tetany, steatorrhoea and nephritis.

    Reference Range:
    8.5 – 10.5 mg/dL

    Liver Function Tests:

    1. Serum Bilirubin
    2. SGPT (ALT)
    3. SGOT (AST)
    4. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase
    5. Serum Proteins
    6. GGTP

    Renal (Kidney) Function Tests:

    1. Blood Urea
    2. Creatinine
    3. Uric Acid
    4. Electrolytes
    5. Sodium (Na)
    6. Potassium (K)